Constructivism as a paradigm or worldview posits that learning is an active, constructive process. The learner is an information constructor. People actively construct or create their own subjective representations of objective reality. New information is linked to to prior knowledge, thus mental representations are subjective.
Summary: Skills necessary for students to master in order for them to experience school and life success in an increasingly digital and connected age; includes digital literacy, traditional literacy, content knowledge, media literacy, and learning/innovation skills.
Originators & Proponents: Groups – United States Department of Education, Partnership for 21st Century Skills, MacArthur Foundation; Individuals – Henry Jenkins, Mimi Ito, John Seely Brown
Keywords: collaboration, digital literacy, innovation, technology, work-life skills, readiness, interdisciplinary learning, problem-solving, ICT (information and communication technologies)
21st Century Skills (Partnership for 21st Century Skills and other groups and individuals)
The 21st Century Skills initiative is an education standards and reform movement, located primarily in the United States, that is focused on improving what US public school students must learn in school so that they are better prepared to succeed in their school and career lives. The term “21st century skills" includes the following skill sets:
- Life/career skills: adaptability & flexibility, initiative & self-direction, leadership & responsibility, productivity & accountability, social & cross-cultural skills
- Core subjects: English/language arts, mathematics, arts, science, history, geography and others
- 21st century themes: civic literacy, environmental literacy, financial literacy (including economic, business, and entrepreneurial skills), global awareness, health literacy
- Information/media/technology skills: media literacy, information literacy
- Learning/innovation skills: creativity, critical thinking, collaboration, communication, problem solving
Students are expected to master these skills and understand these themes while learning core subject content in meaningful, interdisciplinary way. Teachers, administrators, schools, and districts are expected to use these guidelines, known as the P21 Framework, as a foundation for developing curriculum, assessments, and standards that they deem appropriate for their students.