Bloom’s Taxonomy is a model that is a hierarchy — a way to classify thinking according to six cognitive levels of complexity.
- Benjamin S. Bloom (1913-1999)
Bloom’s model consists of six levels, with the three lower levels (knowledge, comprehension, and application) being more basic than the higher levels (analysis, synthesis, and evaluation). Some think of the levels as a stairway, in which learners are encouraged to achieve a higher level of thinking. If a student has mastered a higher level, then he or she is considered to have mastered the levels below.
Bloom’s model has been updated to account for 21st century needs. The old model and new model are depicted below.
Additional Resources and References
- Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals.
- Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., & Bloom, B. S. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. Allyn & Bacon.
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