In his seminal work “Motivation and Personality,” Abraham Maslow wrote: “The scientist who is also something of a poet, philosopher, and even a dreamer, is almost certainly an improvement on his more constricted colleagues.”  While he was not talking about himself, it is nonetheless true that Abraham Maslow was not only the scientist known as the Father of Humanistic Psychology,  but he was also something of a poet, philosopher, and dreamer. A glance through the life and life’s work of this acclaimed figure reveals a man who spent his days urging his fellow human beings to thrive, and showing others how to do the same.
Your privacy is very important to us. This privacy statement provides information about the personal information that Learning-Theories.com collects, and the ways in which we use that personal information.
Collection of Personal Information
Learning-Theories.com may collect and use the following kinds of personal information: information about your use of this website, including usage statistics, geographic location, demographic details; information that you provide using for the purpose of registering with the website (including your name, email address, and other supplied information); information about transactions carried out over this website (including your credit card and other financial details); information that you provide for the purpose of subscribing to the website services;
Using Personal Information
Learning-Theories.com may use your personal information to administer this website; personalize the website for you and create a more customized experience; enable your access to and use of the website services; send to you products that you purchase; supply to you services that you purchase; send to you statements and invoices; collect payments from you; and send you marketing communications.
Where Learning-Theories.com discloses your personal information to its agents or sub-contractors for these purposes, the agent or sub-contractor in question will be obligated to use that personal information in accordance with the terms of this privacy statement.
In addition to the disclosures reasonably necessary for the purposes identified elsewhere above, Learning-Theories.com may disclose your personal information to the extent that it is required to do so by law, in connection with any legal proceedings or prospective legal proceedings, and in order to establish, exercise or defend its legal rights.
Securing Your Data
We assert that Learning-Theories.com will take reasonable technical and organizational precautions to prevent the loss, misuse or alteration of your personal information. We will store all the personal information you provide on secure servers; information relating to electronic transactions entered into via this website will be protected by encryption technology.
This website contains links to other websites that are not affiliated with Learning-Theories.com. Learning-Theories.com is not responsible for the privacy policies or practices of any third party.
Terms of Service
This website is provided “as is” without any representations or warranties, express or implied. Learning-Theories.com makes no representations or warranties in relation to this website or the information and materials provided on this website.
Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing paragraph, Learning-Theories.com does not warrant that:
- this website will be constantly available, or available at all; or
- the information on this website is complete, true, accurate or non-misleading.
No content on this website constitutes, or is meant to constitute, advice of any kind.
Limitations of liability
Learning-Theories.com will not be liable to you (whether under the law of contract, the law of torts or otherwise) in relation to the contents of, or use of, or otherwise in connection with, this website or any associated content.
- for any indirect, special or consequential loss; or
- for any business losses, loss of revenue, income, profits or anticipated savings, loss of contracts or business relationships, loss of reputation or goodwill, or loss or corruption of information or data.
These limitations of liability apply even if Learning-Theories.com has been expressly advised of the potential loss.
By using this website, you agree that the exclusions and limitations of liability set out in this website disclaimer are reasonable. If you do not think they are reasonable, you must not use this website.
If any provision of this website disclaimer is, or is found to be, unenforceable under applicable law, that will not affect the enforceability of the other provisions of this website disclaimer.
All material on this website are copyrighted material and may not be reproduced, sold, modified or used for commercial purposes without the expressed written consent of Learning-Theories.com. Our website occasionally accepts submissions from individuals. Learning-Theories.com is not held responsible for the viewpoints or content of these published submissions.
Learning-Theories.com reserves the right to add, delete, change, or modify these Terms and Conditions at any time, without any warning.
By using this website, you agree to the above terms of conditions in this page.
Summary: Cognitive dissonance is the negative feeling that results from conflicting beliefs and behaviors.
Originator: Leon Festinger (1919-1989), American social psychologist
Keywords: social psychology, forced compliance, decision-making, error justification
Summary: Learner centered design focuses on creating software for heterogeneous groups of learners who need scaffolding as they learn while completing constructivist activities.
Originators and Key Contributors: Elliot Soloway, Mark Guzdian, Kenneth E. Hay
Keywords: constructivism, learner-centered design, learners, scaffolding, software
Learner-centered design (LCD) theory emphasizes the importance of supporting the learners’ growth and motivational needs in designing software. In addition, since learners have different learning needs and learn in different ways, the software must be designed for the specific learner-audience.
The concept of scaffolds is central to learner-centered design. In order to support learners optimally, software should be designed with scaffolds that will support the learners as they need it. Examples of scaffolds in software are hints, explanation and encouragement to help learners understand a process, and questions to help learners reflect on what they are learning.
Software scaffolds that support learners best are adaptive, meaning that they change according to what the learner needs in any learning moment. When a learner needs more support, the software provides an increase in feedback to help the learner grow, stay engaged, and progress in mastering a skill. When the learner is reaching mastery, the software will provide reduced scaffolds in response to the learner’s increased skill level.
In focusing on learner-centered design, four elements must be addressed in designing the software. They are:
- Context: The goal, purpose, and audience of the software
- Interface: The front end and/or aesthetics of the software that learners interact with
- Tasks: What the learners will do in the software
- Tools: What is needed in the software to support the tasks that students will do; these can include scaffolds
Designing software from a LCD perspective keeps the learner in mind and, if done well, provides an effective and meaningful learning experience.
For more information on learner-centered design, read The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences.
- Soloway, E., Guzdial, M., & Hay, K. E. (1994). Learner-centered design: The challenge for HCI in the 21st century. interactions, 1(2), 36-48.
- Soloway, Elliot, et al. “Learning theory in practice: Case studies of learner-centered design.” Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems. ACM, 1996.
- Quintana, C., Carra, A., Krajcik, J., & Soloway, E. (2001). Learner-centered design: Reflections and new directions.
Summary: Connectivism is a learning theory that explains how Internet technologies have created new opportunities for people to learn and share information across the World Wide Web and among themselves.
Originators & Proponents: George Siemens, Stephen Downes
Keywords: communication, connection, distributed cognition, distributed learning, information, Internet, knowledge sharing, links, massive open online course (MOOC), nodes, online, open educational resources (OER), social networks
Connectivism is a learning theory that explains how Internet technologies have created new opportunities for people to learn and share information across the World Wide Web and among themselves. These technologies include Web browsers, email, wikis, online discussion forums, social networks, YouTube, and any other tool which enables the users to learn and share information with other people.
A key feature of connectivism is that much learning can happen across peer networks that take place online. In connectivist learning, a teacher will guide students to information and answer key questions as needed, in order to support students learning and sharing on their own. Students are also encouraged to seek out information on their own online and express what they find. A connected community around this shared information often results.
Summary: Anchored Instruction involves the use of an “anchor” material or media, often a video, to create a shared experience among learners and a beginning point for further learning on a topic.
Originators & Proponents: Cognition & Technology Group at Vanderbilt (CTGV), John D. Bransford
Keywords: anchor, case-based learning, case study, curriculum, discussion, shared experience, situated cognition, social learning, technology, video
Anchored instruction (Cognition & Technology Group at Vanderbilt, Bransford)
Anchored instruction involves the use of an “anchor” material or piece of media, often a video, to create a shared experience among learners and a beginning point for further learning on a topic. The anchor video should support a few key instructional objectives. It should be:
Summary: Semiotics is the study of how people make meaning through both linguistic and non-linguistic ways. It is a philosophical theory concerned with understanding how people use signs and symbols in meaning-making.
Originators & Proponents: Ferdinand de Saussure, Roland Barthes, Mikhail Bakhtin
Keywords: communication, connotation, culture, denotation, icon, index, lexicon, linguistics, logic, meaning, mode, rules, signifier, signs, sign systems, symbols
Summary: Multiliteracies is a pedagogical approach developed in 1994 by the New London Group that aims to make classroom teaching more inclusive of cultural, linguistic, communicative, and technological diversity. They advocate this so that students will be better prepared for a successful life in a globalized world.
Originators & Proponents: New London Group
Keywords: communication, community engagement, cultural diversity, education, expression, globalization, language, linguistic diversity, literacy, modes, multimodality, pedagogy, technology
Summary: Situated cognition is the theory that people’s knowledge is embedded in the activity, context, and culture in which it was learned. It is also referred to as “situated learning.”
Originators & proponents: John Seely Brown, Allan Collins, Paul Duguid
Keywords: activity, authentic domain activity, authentic learning, cognitive apprenticeship, content-specific learning, context, culture, everyday learning, knowledge, legitimate peripheral participation, socio-cultural learning, social construction of knowledge, social interaction, teaching methods
Situated cognition (Brown, Collins, & Duguid)
Situated cognition is a theory which emphasizes that people’s knowledge is constructed within and linked to the activity, context, and culture in which it was learned.
Learning is social and not isolated, as people learn while interacting with each other through shared activities and through language, as they discuss, share knowledge, and problem-solve during these tasks.
For example, while language learners can study a dictionary to increase their vocabulary, this often solitary work only teaches basic parts of learning a language; when language learners talk with someone who is a native speaker of the language, they will learn important aspects of how these words are used in the native speaker’s home culture and how the words are used in everyday social interactions.