Summary: Backward Design is a model for designing instructional materials where the instructor or designer begins the design process with a focus on the desired results (i.e., the outcome) of instruction.
The Model of Hierarchical Complexity, sometimes referred to as the MHC in educational psychology, is a framework used to explore and organize the patterns of human development. It is a theory used when working with behavioral development in particular.
Summary: The concept of backup systems, also known as redundancy, originated in the field of engineering. Many mechanical systems are created in such a way that if one part of the system fails, the system as a whole will still be able to function due to the presence of backup components. Redundancy and backup plans […]
Summary: The Law of Large Numbers is a statistical theory related to the probability of an event. This theory states that the greater number of times an event is carried out in real life, the closer the real-life results will compare to the statistical or mathematically proven results. In research studies, this means that large sample […]
Summary: Scarcity is an economic term that describes the mindset people develop when they have many needs and not enough resources to meet those needs. When people operate out of a scarcity mindset, it can greatly impair their decision-making abilities.
Summary: The Pareto Principle describes how in a variety of situations, 80% of a product or phenomenon’s output often comes from only 20% of the available input. For example, a business may receive 80% of its income from the sale of only 20% of the products available in their inventory.
Overview: Feedback loops are cause-and-effect processes within organisms and systems. Negative feedback loops serve to maintain homeostasis or equilibrium. Positive feedback loops are used to intensify or change the status of a system.
Summary: The Tragedy of the Commons is an economic theory that describes how people often use natural resources to their advantage without considering the good of a group or society as a whole. When a number of individuals consider only their own welfare in this manner, it leads to negative outcomes for everybody, as the natural […]
Overview: The Law of Diminishing Returns is an economic theory that describes how at a certain point, increasing labor does not yield an equally increasing amount of productivity. In other words, when the amount of input increases over time, at some point the rate of output decreases for each unit of input.