Summary: Emotional Intelligence (EQ) is defined as the ability to identify, assess, and control one’s own emotions, the emotions of others, and that of groups.

Originators: Many, including Howard Gardner (1983) and Daniel Goleman (1995), in a popular 1995 book entitled Emotional Intelligence and his recent book, Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More than IQ. Several other models and definitions have also been proposed.

Key Terms: conceptual elaboration sequence, theoretical elaboration sequence, simplifying conditions sequence

Emotional Intelligence (EQ)


In the 1900s, even though traditional definitions of intelligence emphasized cognitive aspects such as memory and problem-solving, several influential researchers in the intelligence field of study had begun to recognize the importance of going beyond traditional types of intelligence (IQ). As early as 1920, for instance, E.L. Thorndike described “social intelligence” as the skill of understanding and managing others. Howard Gardner in 1983 described the idea of multiple intelligences, in which interpersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people) and intrapersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one’s feelings, fears and motivations) helped explain performance outcomes.

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