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Grit (Duckworth, Matthews, Kelly, Peterson)

Summary: Grit is a quality that learners have that enables them to persevere while facing struggles and obstacles. This can help the learners attain success because they don’t give up until they reach their goals. Originators & proponents: Angela Duckworth (University of Pennsylvania); Michael D. Matthews (USMA, West Point); Dennis R. Kelly (USMA, West Point); Christopher Peterson (University of Michigan) Keywords: achievement, grit, growth mindset, motivation, non-cognitive factors, performance, perseverence, persistence, personality, resilience, success Grit (Duckworth, Matthews,...

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Flow (Csíkszentmihályi)

Summary: Flow is an optimal psychological state that people experience when engaged in an activity that is both appropriately challenging to one’s skill level, often resulting in immersion and concentrated focus on a task. This can result in deep learning and high levels of personal and work satisfaction. Originators & proponents: Mihály Csíkszentmihályi Keywords: anxiety/stress, challenge level, creativity, engagement, expertise, happiness, immersion, flow, focus, learning, motivation, satisfaction, self-regulation, skill level Flow (Csíkszentmihályi) Flow is one of eight mental states...

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ARCS Model of Motivational Design (Keller)

Summary: According to John Keller’s ARCS Model of Motivational Design, there are four steps for promoting and sustaining motivation in the learning process: Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction (ARCS). Originator: John Keller Key terms: Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction (ARCS) ARCS Model of Motivational Design (Keller) 1. Attention Keller attention can be gained in two ways: (1) Perceptual arousal – uses surprise or uncertainly to gain interest. Uses novel, surprising, incongruous, and uncertain events; or (2) Inquiry arousal – stimulates curiosity by...

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Emotional Intelligence (Goleman)

Summary: Emotional Intelligence (EQ) is defined as the ability to identify, assess, and control one’s own emotions, the emotions of others, and that of groups. Originators: Many, including Howard Gardner (1983) and Daniel Goleman (1995), in a popular 1995 book entitled Emotional Intelligence and his recent book, Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More than IQ.  Several other models and definitions have also been proposed. Key Terms: conceptual elaboration sequence, theoretical elaboration sequence, simplifying conditions sequence Emotional Intelligence (EQ) History In the 1900s,...

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Summary: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (often represented as a pyramid with five levels of needs) is a motivational theory in psychology that argues that while people aim to meet basic needs, they seek to meet successively higher needs in the form of a pyramid. Originator: Abraham Maslow in 1943. Key terms: deficiency needs, growth needs, physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, self-actualization Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Abraham H. Maslow felt as though conditioning theories did not adequately acapture the complexity of human behavior.  In a 1943 paper called A Theory of...

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Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan)

Summary: Self-Determination Theory is a theory of motivation and personality that addresses three universal, innate and psychological needs: competence, autonomy, and psychological relatedness. Originators: Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan, psychologists at the University of Rochester. Key Terms: motivation, competence, autonomy, relatedness Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan) Self-Determination Theory (SDT) is an important theory of motivation that addresses issues of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. People have innate psychological needs: Competence Relatedness Autonomy If these...

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