ARCS Model of Motivational Design (Keller)

Summary: According to John Keller’s ARCS Model of Motivational Design, there are four steps for promoting and sustaining motivation in the learning process: Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction (ARCS). Originator: John Keller Key terms: Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction (ARCS) ARCS Model of Motivational Design (Keller) 1. Attention Keller attention can be gained in two ways: (1) Perceptual arousal – uses surprise or uncertainly to gain interest. Uses novel, surprising, incongruous, and uncertain events; or (2) Inquiry arousal – stimulates curiosity by...

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Emotional Intelligence (Goleman)

Summary: Emotional Intelligence (EQ) is defined as the ability to identify, assess, and control one’s own emotions, the emotions of others, and that of groups. Originators: Many, including Howard Gardner (1983) and Daniel Goleman (1995), in a popular 1995 book entitled Emotional Intelligence and his recent book, Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More than IQ.  Several other models and definitions have also been proposed. Key Terms: conceptual elaboration sequence, theoretical elaboration sequence, simplifying conditions sequence Emotional Intelligence (EQ) History In the...

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Summary: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (often represented as a pyramid with five levels of needs) is a motivational theory in psychology that argues that while people aim to meet basic needs, they seek to meet successively higher needs in the form of a pyramid. Originator: Abraham Maslow in 1943. Key terms: deficiency needs, growth needs, physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, self-actualization Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Abraham H. Maslow felt as though conditioning theories did not adequately acapture the complexity of human behavior.  In a 1943 paper called A Theory of...

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Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan)

Summary: Self-Determination Theory is a theory of motivation and personality that addresses three universal, innate and psychological needs: competence, autonomy, and psychological relatedness. Originators: Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan, psychologists at the University of Rochester. Key Terms: motivation, competence, autonomy, relatedness Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan) Self-Determination Theory (SDT) is an important theory of motivation that addresses issues of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. People have innate psychological needs: Competence Relatedness Autonomy If...

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