Cognitive Load Theory of Multimedia Learning (Sweller)

Summary: A theory that focuses the load on working memory during instruction. Originators and proponents: John Sweller Keywords: cognitive load theory, working memory, multimedia learning Cognitive Load Theory of Multimedia Learning (Sweller) John Sweller’s paper, “Implications of Cognitive Load Theory for Multimedia Learning” describes the human cognitive architecture, and the need to apply sound instructional design principles based on our knowledge of the brain and memory. Sweller first describes the different types of memory, and how both are interrelated, because schemas held...

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Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer)

Summary: A cognitive theory of multimedia learning based on three main assumptions: there are two separate channels (auditory and visual) for processing information; there is limited channel capacity; and that learning is an active process of filtering, selecting, organizing, and integrating information. Originator: Richard Mayer Key terms: dual-channel, limited capacity, sensory, working, long-term memory Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer) The principle known as the “multimedia principle” states that “people learn more deeply from words and pictures than from...

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Problem-Based Learning (PBL)

Summary: Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is an instructional method of hands-on, active learning centered on the investigation and resolution of messy, real-world problems. Originators: Late 1960s at the medical school at McMaster University in Canada. Key Terms: open-ended problems, self-directed learners, teacher as facilitator, student as problem solver Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is a pedagogical approach and curriculum design methodology often used in higher education and K-12 settings. The following are some of the defining characteristics of PBL: Learning is...

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Experiential Learning (Kolb)

Summary: A four-stage cyclical theory of learning, Kolb’s experiential learning theory is a holistic perspective that combines experience, perception, cognition, and behavior. Originators: David A. Kolb (1939-) Key Terms: Learning cycles, learning styles, concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, active experimentation Experiential Learning (Kolb) Building upon earlier work by John Dewey and Kurt Levin, American educational theorist David A. Kolb believes “learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of...

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Affordance Theory (Gibson)

Summary: Affordance theory states that the world is perceived not only in terms of object shapes and spatial relationships but also in terms of object possibilities for action (affordances) — perception drives action. Originators: J. J. Gibson (1904-1979) Keywords: Affordances, direct perception, ecological Affordance Theory (J. J. Gibson) American psychologist James Jerome Gibson was influential in changing the way we consider visual perception. According to his theory, perception of the environment inevitably leads to some course of action. Affordances, or clues in the environment...

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GOMS Model (Card, Moran, and Newell)

Summary: The GOMS Model is a human information processing model that predicts what skilled users will do in seemingly unpredictable situations. Originators and proponents: Card, Moran and Newell in 1983; Bonnie John et al. Keywords: Goals, operators, methods, selection rules GOMS Model (Card, Moran, and Newell) This model is the general term for a family of human information processing techniques that attempt to model and predict user behavior. Typically used by software designers, a person’s behavior is analyzed in terms of four components: Goals – something that the person...

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