Erikson’s Stages of Development

Summary: An eight stage theory of identity and psychosocial development Erik Erikson (1902 -1994), a German-born American psychoanalyst. Key Terms: Erikson’s stages, psychosocial, development Erikson’s Stages of Development  Erik Erikson, a German psychoanalyst heavily influenced by Sigmund Freud, explored three aspects of identity: the ego identity (self), personal identity (the personal idiosyncrasies that distinguish a person from another, social/cultural identity (the collection of social roles a person might play). Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development considers...

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Identity Status Theory (Marcia)

Summary: Refining and extending Erik Erikson’s work, James Marcia came up with four Identity Statuses of psychological identity development. The main idea is that one’s sense of identity is determined largely by the choices and commitments made regarding certain personal and social traits. Originators: James Marcia, Canadian developmental psychologist and Emeritus Professor of Psychology at Simon Fraser University. Key terms: identity status, diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, achievement. Marcia’s Identity Statuses Based on Erik Erikson’s groundbreaking work on...

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Self-Theories (Dweck)

Summary: Carol Dweck and others have Identified two implicit theories of intelligence.  Those learners who have an “entity” theory view intelligence as being an unchangeable, fixed internal characteristic.  Those who have an “incremental” theory believe that their intelligence is malleable and can be increased through effort. Originators: Carol Dweck, based on over 30 years of research on belief systems, and their role in motivation and achievement.  Discussed in her book Self-Theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality, and Development (1999). Key Terms: entity...

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