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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Summary: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (often represented as a pyramid with five levels of needs) is a motivational theory in psychology that argues that while people aim to meet basic needs, they seek to meet successively higher needs in the form of a pyramid. Originator: Abraham Maslow in 1943. Key terms: deficiency needs, growth needs, physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, self-actualization Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Abraham H. Maslow felt as though conditioning theories did not adequately acapture the complexity of human behavior. ┬áIn a 1943 paper called A Theory of...

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Humanism

Summary: Humanism is a paradigm/philosophy/pedagogical approach that believes learning is viewed as a personal act to fulfil one’s potential. Key proponents: Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Malcolm Knowles Key terms: self-actualization, teacher as facilitator, affect Humanism Humanism, a paradigm that emerged in the 1960s, focuses on the human freedom, dignity, and potential. A central assumption of humanism, according to Huitt (2001), is that people act with intentionality and values. This is in contrast to the behaviorist notion of operant conditioning (which argues that all behavior is...

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Experiential Learning (Kolb)

Summary: A four-stage cyclical theory of learning, Kolb’s experiential learning theory is a holistic perspective that combines experience, perception, cognition, and behavior. Originators: David A. Kolb (1939-) Key Terms: Learning cycles, learning styles, concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, active experimentation Experiential Learning (Kolb) Building upon earlier work by John Dewey and Kurt Levin, American educational theorist David A. Kolb believes “learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of...

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