Bloom’s Taxonomy (Bloom)

Summary: Bloom’s Taxonomy is a model that is a hierarchy — a way to classify thinking according to six cognitive levels of complexity. Originator: Benjamin S. Bloom (1913-1999) Keywords: lower and higher level thinking Bloom’s Taxonomy Bloom’s model consists of six levels, with the three lower levels (knowledge, comprehension, and application) being more basic than the higher levels (analysis, synthesis, and evaluation).  Some think of the levels as a stairway, in which learners are encouraged to achieve a higher level of thinking.  If a student has mastered a higher...

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Actor-Network Theory (ANT)

Summary: Actor-Network Theory is a framework and systematic way to consider the infrastructure surrounding technological achievements. Assigns agency to both human and non-human actors (e.g. artifacts) Originator: Michel Callon (1991) and Bruno Latour (1992); John Law; others. Key Terms: actor, network, generalized symmetry, equal agency Actor-Network Theory (ANT) Originally created by French scholars Latour and Callon as an attempt to understand processes of technological innovation and scientific knowledge-creation, Actor-Network Theory (ANT) can be contrasted with “heroic”...

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Distributed Cognition (DCog)

Summary: Distributed cognition is a branch of cognitive science that proposes cognition and knowledge are not confined to an individual; rather, it is distributed across objects, individuals, artefacts, and tools in the environment. Originators: Edwin Hutchins in the 1990s. Key Terms: Cognition in the Wild, mind in the world, artefacts, environment, representational media Distributed Cognition (DCog) Edwin Hutchins, a cognitive psychologist and anthropologist, studied how navigation is coordinated on US navy ships around San Diego. From his observations, he posited that the mind is in the...

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Activity Theory

Summary: Activity Theory is a framework or descriptive tool for a system. People are socio-culturally embedded actors (not processors or system components). There exists a hierarchical analysis of motivated human action (levels of activity analysis). Originator: Vygotsky, Leont’ev, Luria, and others starting in the 1920s. Key terms: Activity, action, operation, object-orientedness, internalization/externalization, mediation, development. Activity Theory Activity Theory is more of a descriptive meta-theory or framework than a predictive theory. Considers entire work/activity system...

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