Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer)

Summary: A cognitive theory of multimedia learning based on three main assumptions: there are two separate channels (auditory and visual) for processing information; there is limited channel capacity; and that learning is an active process of filtering, selecting, organizing, and integrating information. Originator: Richard Mayer Key terms: dual-channel, limited capacity, sensory, working, long-term memory Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer) The principle known as the “multimedia principle” states that “people learn more deeply from words and pictures than from...

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Cognitive Load Theory of Multimedia Learning (Sweller)

Summary: A theory that focuses the load on working memory during instruction. Originators and proponents: John Sweller Keywords: cognitive load theory, working memory, multimedia learning Cognitive Load Theory of Multimedia Learning (Sweller) John Sweller’s paper, “Implications of Cognitive Load Theory for Multimedia Learning” describes the human cognitive architecture, and the need to apply sound instructional design principles based on our knowledge of the brain and memory. Sweller first describes the different types of memory, and how both are interrelated, because schemas held in...

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Cognitive Apprenticeship (Collins et al.)

Summary: Cognitive Apprenticeship is a theory that attempts to bring tacit processes out in the open.  It assumes that people learn from one another, through observation, imitation and modeling. Originator: Collins, Brown and Newman Key Terms: Modeling, coaching, scaffolding, articulation, reflection Cognitive Apprenticeship Around 1987, Collins, Brown, and Newman developed six teaching methods — modeling, coaching, scaffolding, articulation, reflection and exploration. These methods enable students to cognitive and metacognitive strategies for “using, managing, and discovering...

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Cognitivism

Summary: The cognitivist paradigm essentially argues that the “black box” of the mind should be opened and understood. The learner is viewed as an information processor (like a computer). Originators and important contributors: Merrill -Component Display Theory (CDT), Reigeluth (Elaboration Theory), Gagne, Briggs, Wager, Bruner (moving toward cognitive constructivism), Schank (scripts), Scandura (structural learning) Keywords: Schema, schemata, information processing, symbol manipulation, information mapping, mental models Cognitivism The cognitivist revolution replaced behaviorism in...

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Social Learning Theory (Bandura)

Summary: Bandura’s Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling. The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation. Originator: Albert Bandura Key Terms: Modeling, reciprocal determinism Social Learning Theory (Bandura) People learn through observing others’ behavior, attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviors. “Most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others, one forms an...

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Attribution Theory (Weiner)

Summary: Attribution Theory attempts to explain the world and to determine the cause of an event or behavior (e.g. why people do what they do). Originator: Bernard Weiner (1935- ) Key terms: Attribution, locus of control, stability, controllability Attribution Theory (Weiner) Weiner developed a theoretical framework that has become very influential in social psychology today. Attribution theory assumes that people try to determine why people do what they do, that is, interpret causes to an event or behavior. A three-stage process underlies an attribution: behavior must be...

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