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Flow (Csíkszentmihályi)

Summary: Flow is an optimal psychological state that people experience when engaged in an activity that is both appropriately challenging to one’s skill level, often resulting in immersion and concentrated focus on a task. This can result in deep learning and high levels of personal and work satisfaction. Originators & proponents: Mihály Csíkszentmihályi Keywords: anxiety/stress, challenge level, creativity, engagement, expertise, happiness, immersion, flow, focus, learning, motivation, satisfaction, self-regulation, skill level Flow (Csíkszentmihályi) Flow is one of eight mental states...

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Situated Cognition (Brown, Collins, & Duguid)

Summary: Situated cognition is the theory that people’s knowledge is embedded in the activity, context, and culture in which it was learned. It is also referred to as “situated learning.” Originators & proponents: John Seely Brown, Allan Collins, Paul Duguid Keywords: activity, authentic domain activity, authentic learning, cognitive apprenticeship, content-specific learning, context, culture, everyday learning, knowledge, legitimate peripheral participation, socio-cultural learning, social construction of knowledge, social interaction, teaching methods Situated cognition...

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Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer)

Summary: A cognitive theory of multimedia learning based on three main assumptions: there are two separate channels (auditory and visual) for processing information; there is limited channel capacity; and that learning is an active process of filtering, selecting, organizing, and integrating information. Originator: Richard Mayer Key terms: dual-channel, limited capacity, sensory, working, long-term memory Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer) The principle known as the “multimedia principle” states that “people learn more deeply from words and pictures than from...

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Cognitive Load Theory of Multimedia Learning (Sweller)

Summary: A theory that focuses the load on working memory during instruction. Originators and proponents: John Sweller Keywords: cognitive load theory, working memory, multimedia learning Cognitive Load Theory of Multimedia Learning (Sweller) John Sweller’s paper, “Implications of Cognitive Load Theory for Multimedia Learning” describes the human cognitive architecture, and the need to apply sound instructional design principles based on our knowledge of the brain and memory. Sweller first describes the different types of memory, and how both are interrelated, because schemas held in...

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Cognitive Apprenticeship (Collins et al.)

Summary: Cognitive Apprenticeship is a theory that attempts to bring tacit processes out in the open.  It assumes that people learn from one another, through observation, imitation and modeling. Originator: Collins, Brown and Newman Key Terms: Modeling, coaching, scaffolding, articulation, reflection Cognitive Apprenticeship Around 1987, Collins, Brown, and Newman developed six teaching methods — modeling, coaching, scaffolding, articulation, reflection and exploration. These methods enable students to cognitive and metacognitive strategies for “using, managing, and discovering...

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Cognitivism

Summary: The cognitivist paradigm essentially argues that the “black box” of the mind should be opened and understood. The learner is viewed as an information processor (like a computer). Originators and important contributors: Merrill -Component Display Theory (CDT), Reigeluth (Elaboration Theory), Gagne, Briggs, Wager, Bruner (moving toward cognitive constructivism), Schank (scripts), Scandura (structural learning) Keywords: Schema, schemata, information processing, symbol manipulation, information mapping, mental models Cognitivism The cognitivist revolution replaced behaviorism in 1960s...

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