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Functional Context Theory (Sticht)

Summary: Functional Context Theory is a cognitive learning theory that was developed specifically for educating adults in businesses and the military. Originator: Thomas Sticht Keywords: Job task analysis, knowledge base, literacy, learning strategies, instructional strategies Functional Context Theory (Sticht) There are various styles of learning requiring educators to learn about their students so that they can choose the most appropriate learning theory upon which to develop their instructional strategies. The functional context theory is considered a cognitive learning theory. The theory...

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Gestalt Theory (von Ehrenfels)

Summary: The Gestalt theory of learning originated in Germany, being put forth by three German theorists who were inspired by the works and ideas of the man who gave the learning theory its name. Graf Christian von Ehrenfels was a learning theorist who took the holistic approach to learning by putting forth the idea that learning takes place as students were able to comprehend a concept in its entirety, rather than broken up into parts. Key Terms: holistic, mechanical response, phenomenology, Isomorphism, factor of closure, factor of proximity, trace factor, factor of similarity, figure...

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Flow (Csíkszentmihályi)

Summary: Flow is an optimal psychological state that people experience when engaged in an activity that is both appropriately challenging to one’s skill level, often resulting in immersion and concentrated focus on a task. This can result in deep learning and high levels of personal and work satisfaction. Originators & proponents: Mihály Csíkszentmihályi Keywords: anxiety/stress, challenge level, creativity, engagement, expertise, happiness, immersion, flow, focus, learning, motivation, satisfaction, self-regulation, skill level Flow (Csíkszentmihályi) Flow is one of eight mental states...

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Situated Cognition (Brown, Collins, & Duguid)

Summary: Situated cognition is the theory that people’s knowledge is embedded in the activity, context, and culture in which it was learned. It is also referred to as “situated learning.” Originators & proponents: John Seely Brown, Allan Collins, Paul Duguid Keywords: activity, authentic domain activity, authentic learning, cognitive apprenticeship, content-specific learning, context, culture, everyday learning, knowledge, legitimate peripheral participation, socio-cultural learning, social construction of knowledge, social interaction, teaching methods Situated cognition...

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Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer)

Summary: A cognitive theory of multimedia learning based on three main assumptions: there are two separate channels (auditory and visual) for processing information; there is limited channel capacity; and that learning is an active process of filtering, selecting, organizing, and integrating information. Originator: Richard Mayer Key terms: dual-channel, limited capacity, sensory, working, long-term memory Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer) The principle known as the “multimedia principle” states that “people learn more deeply from words and pictures than from...

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Cognitive Load Theory of Multimedia Learning (Sweller)

Summary: A theory that focuses the load on working memory during instruction. Originators and proponents: John Sweller Keywords: cognitive load theory, working memory, multimedia learning Cognitive Load Theory of Multimedia Learning (Sweller) John Sweller’s paper, “Implications of Cognitive Load Theory for Multimedia Learning” describes the human cognitive architecture, and the need to apply sound instructional design principles based on our knowledge of the brain and memory. Sweller first describes the different types of memory, and how both are interrelated, because schemas held in...

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