Summary: The ADDIE model is a systematic instructional design model consisting of five phases: (1) Analysis, (2) Design, (3) Development, (4) Implementation, and (5) Evaluation. Various flavors and versions of the ADDIE model exist.
Originator: Unknown. Refined by Dick and Carey and others.
Key terms: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation
The generic term for the five-phase instructional design model consisting of Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. Each step has an outcome that feeds into the next step in the sequence. There are probably over 100+ different variations of the generic ADDIE model.
The five phases of ADDIE are as follows:
- During analysis, the designer identifies the learning problem, the goals and objectives, the audience’s needs, existing knowledge, and any other relevant characteristics. Analysis also considers the learning environment, any constraints, the delivery options, and the timeline for the project.
- A systematic process of specifying learning objectives. Detailed storyboards and prototypes are often made, and the look and feel, graphic design, user-interface and content is determined here.
- The actual creation (production) of the content and learning materials based on the Design phase.
- During implementation, the plan is put into action and a procedure for training the learner and teacher is developed. Materials are delivered or distributed to the student group. After delivery, the effectiveness of the training materials is evaluated.
- This phase consists of (1) formative and (2) summative evaluation. Formative evaluation is present in each stage of the ADDIE process. Summative evaluation consists of tests designed for criterion-related referenced items and providing opportunities for feedback from the users. Revisions are made as necessary.
Rapid prototyping (continual feedback) has sometimes been cited as as a way to improve the generic ADDIE model.
For more information, see:
- Branch’s book: Instructional Design: The ADDIE Approach. Better than most books on this topic, Branch’s book focuses on fundamental ADDIE principles, with not a lot of professional jargon.
- Dick, W., & Carey, L. (1996). The Systematic Design of Instruction (4th Ed.). New York: Haper Collins College Publishers.
- Leshin, C. B., Pollock, J., & Reigeluth, C. M. (1992). Instructional Design Strategies and Tactics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Education Technology Publications.
- Branch, R. M. (2009). Instructional design: The ADDIE approach (Vol. 722). Springer Science & Business Media.